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Vascular deficiencies in renal organoids and ex vivo kidney organogenesis.

Developmental biology (2021-05-18)
Anne R Ryan, Alicia R England, Christopher P Chaney, Mitzy A Cowdin, Max Hiltabidle, Edward Daniel, Ashwani Kumar Gupta, Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver
ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) are increasingly frequent and devastating conditions that have driven a surge in the need for kidney transplantation. A stark shortage of organs has fueled interest in generating viable replacement tissues ex vivo for transplantation. One promising approach has been self-organizing organoids, which mimic developmental processes and yield multicellular, organ-specific tissues. However, a recognized roadblock to this approach is that many organoid cell types fail to acquire full maturity and function. Here, we comprehensively assess the vasculature in two distinct kidney organoid models as well as in explanted embryonic kidneys. Using a variety of methods, we show that while organoids can develop a wide range of kidney cell types, as previously shown, endothelial cells (ECs) initially arise but then rapidly regress over time in culture. Vasculature of cultured embryonic kidneys exhibit similar regression. By contrast, engraftment of kidney organoids under the kidney capsule results in the formation of a stable, perfused vasculature that integrates into the organoid. This work demonstrates that kidney organoids offer a promising model system to define the complexities of vascular-nephron interactions, but the establishment and maintenance of a vascular network present unique challenges when grown ex vivo.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Pancreatin from porcine pancreas, ≥3 × USP specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
InSolution Y-27632 - Calbiochem, Y-27632A, CAS 146986-50-7, is a cell-permeable, reversible, inhibitor of Rho kinases (Ki = 140 nM for p160ROCK). Enhances survival & cloning efficiency of ESC without affecting their pluripotency.