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Presence of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 plasma.

PloS one (2021-03-05)
For Yue Tso, Salum J Lidenge, Lisa K Poppe, Phoebe B Peña, Sara R Privatt, Sydney J Bennett, John R Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Michael Belshan, Jacob A Siedlik, Morgan A Raine, Juan B Ochoa, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Bobby Nossaman, Lyndsey Buckner, W Mark Roberts, Matthew J Dean, Augusto C Ochoa, John T West, Charles Wood
ABSTRACT

Neutralizing-antibody (nAb) is the major focus of most ongoing COVID-19 vaccine trials. However, nAb response against SARS-CoV-2, when present, decays rapidly. Given the myriad roles of antibodies in immune responses, it is possible that antibodies could also mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 via effector mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which we sought to explore here. Plasma of 3 uninfected controls and 20 subjects exposed to, or recovering from, SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected from U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies in the plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing capability of these plasmas was assessed with SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus. ADCC activity was assessed with a calcein release assay. SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies were detected in all COVID-19 subjects studied. All but three COVID-19 subjects contained nAb at high potency (>80% neutralization). Plasma from 19/20 of COVID-19 subjects also demonstrated strong ADCC activity against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, including two individuals without nAb against SARS-CoV-2. Both neutralizing and non-neutralizing COVID-19 plasmas can mediate ADCC. Our findings argue that evaluation of potential vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 should include investigation of the magnitude and durability of ADCC, in addition to nAb.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

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myo-Inositol, ≥99%
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Fluoromount Aqueous Mounting Medium, for use with fluorescent dye-stained tissues
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Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, Alpha Modification, with L-glutamine, ribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleosides, without sodium bicarbonate, powder, suitable for cell culture
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