A high platelet count is associated with a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer (OvCa). Despite good clinical responses with platinating agents in combination with taxanes, numerous OvCa patients relapse due to chemotherapy resistance. Here, we report that treatment of OvCa cells A2780, OVCAR5 and MDAH with releasate from activated platelets (PR) promoted multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) formation. These OvCa-MCTSs had increased percentages of CD133+ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)+ cells, bona fide markers of OvCa cancer stem cells (CSCs). PR increased OVCAR5- and MDAH-MCTS viability and decreased the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of paclitaxel, cisplatin and carboplatin. PR increased the volume of spontaneously formed OVCAR8-MCTSs and counteracted their size reduction due to cisplatin, carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment. PR promoted the survival of ALDH+ and CD133+ OvCa cells during cisplatin, carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment. In conclusion, molecules and growth factors released by activated platelets (EGF, PDGF, TGF-β, IGF and CCL5) may protect tumor cells from chemotherapy by promoting the expansion of ALDH+ and CD133+ OvCa-CSCs, favoring drug resistance and tumor relapse.