Iron-platinum nanoparticles embedded in a poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) polymer shell and fluorescently labeled with the dye ATTO 590 (FePt-PMA-ATTO-2%) are investigated in terms of their intracellular localization in lung cells and potential to induce a proinflammatory response dependent on concentration and incubation time. A gold core coated with the same polymer shell (Au-PMA-ATTO-2%) is also included. Using laser scanning and electron microscopy techniques, it is shown that the FePt-PMA-ATTO-2% particles penetrate all three types of cell investigated but to a higher extent in macrophages and dendritic cells than epithelial cells. In both cell types of the defense system but not in epithelial cells, a particle-dose-dependent increase of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is found. By comparing the different nanoparticles and the mere polymer shell, it is shown that the cores combined with the shells are responsible for the induction of proinflammatory effects and not the shells alone. It is concluded that the uptake behavior and the proinflammatory response upon particle exposure are dependent on the time, cell type, and cell culture.