Phytases play a very important role in increasing phytate digestion and reducing phosphorus pollution in the environment, and phytate-degrading bacteria have a ubiquitous distribution in the environment. Due to its extremely harsh environment, the Tibetan Plateau breeds possibly abundant, extreme microorganisms. In this research, 67 phytate-degrading bacteria were isolated from different habitats in the Tibetan Plateau. Among all isolates, 40.3% were screened from farmland, 25.3% from wetland, 4.5% from saline-alkaline soil, 7.5% from hot springs, and 22.4% from lawns, which showed that the distribution of the phytate-degrading bacteria varied with habitats. By the PCR-RFLP method, 16 different species were identified and named, 4 of which are reported for the first time as phytate-degrading bacteria, that is, Uncultured Enterococcus sp. GYPB01, Bacillaceae bacterium strain GYPB05, Endophytic bacterium strain GYPB16, and Shigella dysenteria strain GYPB22. Through the assay of phytase activity of 16 strains, Klebsiella sp. strain GYPB15 displayed the highest capability of phytase production. Through analysis of the optimum pH, the optimum temperature, and the thermal stability of enzyme from 16 strains, some especial phytate-degrading bacteria were obtained. Our findings clearly indicate a good relation between the composition of the soils from the different environments in the Tibetan Plateau and populations of cultivable phytate-degrading bacteria. Moreover, extreme harsh soils are logically the best soils in which to find some strains of phytate-degrading bacteria for exploiting in the fields of biotechnology and industry.