Ellagic acid (1), 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (2), 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid (3), isovitexin (4), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide methyl ester (5), quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (6), ursolic acid, pomolic acid, tormentic acid, euscaphic acid, euscaphic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and maslinic acid were isolated from the AcOEt- and BuOH-soluble MeOH extract of Duchesnea chrysantha (whole plant). The isolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to evaluate their inhibitory activity on rat-lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The ellagic acids and flavonoids, compounds 1-6, exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on RLAR. However, compounds 1 and 4-6 showed excellent inhibitory activities towards the formation of AGEs. This is the first report that 4 and 6 exhibit inhibitory activity towards AR and AGEs formation.