Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) is a known reproductive toxicant that induces luteal hypertrophy in rat ovaries. In this study, we characterized the histopathological features of corpora lutea (CL) from EGME-treated rats and compared them with normal CL formation and regression. Normally cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneally on the morning of estrus and their ovaries were examined 1 (metestrus), 4 (estrus), 8 (estrus), or 12 (estrus) days later to observe the transition of BrdU-labeled cells within in the CL. CL at each time point of estrus stage were classified into 4 types: Type I (newly formed CL), Type II (mature CL), Type III (regressing CL), and Type IV (residual CL). CL almost fully regressed within 4 estrus cycles. In contrast, in female rats given EGME orally (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg for 2 or 4 weeks), luteal cells were hypertrophic with abundant cytoplasm. Although the size of CL varied, all CL in EGME-treated rats had histological features similar to Type II CL, but they were more hypertrophic with less apoptosis. These results suggest that EGME has a luteal hypertrophic effect on all CL phases, including regression.