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  • Determination of pre-steady-state rate constants on the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reveals that loop movement controls the rate-limiting step.

Determination of pre-steady-state rate constants on the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reveals that loop movement controls the rate-limiting step.

Journal of the American Chemical Society (2012-10-24)
Anand Balakrishnan, Natalia S Nemeria, Sumit Chakraborty, Lazaros Kakalis, Frank Jordan
ABSTRACT

Spectroscopic identification and characterization of covalent and noncovalent intermediates on large enzyme complexes is an exciting and challenging area of modern enzymology. The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc), consisting of multiple copies of enzymic components and coenzymes, performs the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and is central to carbon metabolism linking glycolysis to the Krebs cycle. On the basis of earlier studies, we hypothesized that the dynamic regions of the E1p component, which undergo a disorder-order transition upon substrate binding to thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), play a critical role in modulation of the catalytic cycle of PDHc. To test our hypothesis, we kinetically characterized ThDP-bound covalent intermediates on the E1p component, and the lipoamide-bound covalent intermediate on the E2p component in PDHc and in its variants with disrupted active-site loops. Our results suggest that formation of the first covalent predecarboxylation intermediate, C2α-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP), is rate limiting for the series of steps culminating in acetyl-CoA formation. Substitutions in the active center loops produced variants with up to 900-fold lower rates of formation of the LThDP, demonstrating that these perturbations directly affected covalent catalysis. This rate was rescued by up to 5-fold upon assembly to PDHc of the E401K variant. The E1p loop dynamics control covalent catalysis with ThDP and are modulated by PDHc assembly, presumably by selection of catalytically competent loop conformations. This mechanism could be a general feature of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes because such interfacial dynamic regions are highly conserved.

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Thiamine pyrophosphate, ≥95%