• Home
  • Search Results
  • Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid of Malawian children with malaria.

Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid of Malawian children with malaria.

The Journal of infectious diseases (2003-09-10)
Isabelle M Medana, Nicholas P J Day, Houta Salahifar-Sabet, Roland Stocker, George Smythe, Lloyd Bwanaisa, Alfred Njobvu, Kondwani Kayira, Gareth D H Turner, Terrie E Taylor, Nicholas H Hunt
ABSTRACT

A retrospective study of 100 Malawian children (87 with malaria and 13 with a diagnosis other than malaria) was conducted to determine the relationship between levels of metabolites of the kynurenine pathway in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and disease outcome. Three metabolites were measured: quinolinic acid (QA), an excitotoxin; kynurenic acid (KA), a neuroprotective receptor antagonist; and picolinic acid (PA), a proinflammatory mediator. Elevated levels of QA and PA in CSF were associated with a fatal outcome in Malawian children with cerebral malaria (CM). QA was associated with a history of convulsions. An increase in the QArcolon;KA ratio, which favors neurotoxicity, was observed only in the 3 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. Compared with Vietnamese adults with malaria, Malawian children with malaria had higher concentrations of KA. Elevated levels of KA in children with CM may serve to contain injury in the developing brain, which is more susceptible to excitotoxic damage than is the adult brain.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, ACS reagent, 99.0-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, powder, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
γ-Aminobutyric acid, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5%, pellets
Supelco
Urea, 8 M (after reconstitution with 16 mL high purity water)
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea solution, BioUltra, ~8 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, BioXtra, pH 7.5-9.5 (20 °C, 5 M in H2O)
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, suitable for electrophoresis
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.0-100.5%, 99.0-101.0% (calc. on dry substance)
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
2,3-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea solution, 40 % (w/v) in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
γ-Aminobutyric acid, BioXtra, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Pipecolinic acid, 98%
Millipore
Urea solution, suitable for microbiology, 40% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Kynurenine, ≥95.0% (NT)
Urea, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Urea-12C, 99.9 atom % 12C