Plasma-assisted synthesis of nanostructures is one of the most precise and effective approaches used in nanodevice fabrication. Here we report on the innovative approach of synthesizing nanostructured cadmium oxide films on Cd substrates using a reactive oxygen plasma-based process. Under certain conditions, the surface morphology features arrays of crystalline CdO nano/micropyramids. These nanostructures grow via unconventional plasma-assisted oxidation of a cadmium foil exposed to inductively coupled plasmas with a narrow range of process parameters. The growth of the CdO pyramidal nanostructures takes place in the solid-liquid-solid phase, with the rates determined by the interaction of plasma-produced oxygen atoms and ions with the surface. It is shown that the size of the pyramidal structures can be effectively controlled by the fluxes of oxygen atoms and ions impinging on the cadmium surface. The unique role of the reactive plasma environment in the controlled synthesis of CdO nanopyramidal structures is discussed as well.