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Cytotoxicity of α-dicarbonyl compounds submitted to in vitro simulated digestion process.

Food chemistry (2013-05-23)
Alessandra Amoroso, Giovanni Maga, Maria Daglia
ABSTRACT

α-Dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs), such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione, are highly reactive substances occurring in thermally treated and fermented foods, that may react with amino and sulphydryl groups of side chains of proteins to form Maillard reaction end products, inducing a negative impact on the digestibility and on nutritional value of protein. In recent years the role of food derived α-DCs in gastroduodenal tract is under investigation to understand whether excess consumption of such dietary compounds might be a risk for human health. In this study the interactions between a mixture of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione and the digestive enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin) were studied. The results showed that during gastroduodenal digestion α-DCs react with digestive enzymes to produce carbonylated proteins. Moreover, undigested and digested α-DC cytotoxicity against human cells, as well as their ability to inhibit the function of human enzymes responsible for DNA repair were shown.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, Vetec, reagent grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, Suitable for manufacturing of diagnostic kits and reagents, lyophilized powder, ≥3200 units/mg protein
Pepsin, powder, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, powder, ≥400 units/mg protein
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Pepsin−Agarose from porcine gastric mucosa, lyophilized powder, ≥30 units/mg dry solid
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Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, lyophilized powder, ≥3,200 units/mg protein
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Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, powder, ≥250 units/mg solid
Sigma-Aldrich
Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, powder, slightly beige, 1200-2400 U/mg
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Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, powder, slightly beige, ≥500 U/mg
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Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Supelco
2,3-Butanedione, analytical standard
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2,3-Butanedione, 97%
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Glyoxal solution, 40 wt. % in H2O
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Pyruvaldehyde solution, 40 wt. % in H2O
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Glyoxal solution, BioReagent, for molecular biology, ~40% in H2O (~8.8 M)
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Methylglyoxal solution, ~40% in H2O
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Pancreatin from porcine pancreas, 4 × USP specifications
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Pancreatin from porcine pancreas, ≥3 × USP specifications
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Pancreatin from porcine pancreas, powder, suitable for cell culture, 4 × USP specifications
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Methylglyoxal solution, technical, ~40% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Pancreatin from porcine pancreas, Vetec, reagent grade