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Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) (2014-02-08)
Rebecca G Mitchell, Henry M Spliethoff, Lisa N Ribaudo, Donna M Lopp, Hannah A Shayler, Lydia G Marquez-Bravo, Veronique T Lambert, Gretchen S Ferenz, Jonathan M Russell-Anelli, Edie B Stone, Murray B McBride
ABSTRACT

Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, dust, <10 μm, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, granular, 20-30 mesh, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, purum, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, powder, <150 μm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.9%, granular
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, powder, −100 mesh, 99.5% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, nanopowder, 40-60 nm avg. part. size, ≥99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
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Cadmium, granular, 30-80 mesh, ≥99%
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Cadmium, granular, ≥99%, 5-20 mesh
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Zinc, granular, 30-100 mesh, 99%
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Zinc, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, shot, <12 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, powder, −100 mesh, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
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Zinc preparation, 5 g/dL Zn+2 in THF, highly reactive Rieke®metal
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Zinc, mossy, ≥99%
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Zinc, shot, 99.9999%
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Lead, powder, −325 mesh, ≥99% trace metals basis
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Zinc, sticks, diam. 7-10 mm, 99.97% trace metals basis
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Zinc, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, shot, <2 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, shot, 5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
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Lead, shot, 1-3 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, pieces, 2-14 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Zinc, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.20mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, mossy, 99.99% trace metals basis
Zinc, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95+%