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Removal of nickel and cadmium from battery waste by a chemical method using ferric sulphate.

Environmental technology (2014-04-08)
Umesh U Jadhav, Hong Hocheng
ABSTRACT

The removal of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from spent batteries was studied by the chemical method. A novel leaching system using ferric sulphate hydrate was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. Ni-Cd batteries are classified as hazardous waste because Ni and Cd are suspected carcinogens. More efficient technologies are required to recover metals from spent batteries to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. The results obtained demonstrate that optimal conditions, including pH, concentration of ferric sulphate, shaking speed and temperature for the metal removal, were 2.5, 60 g/L, 150 rpm and 30 degrees C, respectively. More than 88 (+/- 0.9) and 84 (+/- 2.8)% of nickel and cadmium were recovered, respectively. These results suggest that ferric ion oxidized Ni and Cd present in battery waste. This novel process provides a possibility for recycling waste Ni-Cd batteries in a large industrial scale.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Iron(III) sulfate hydrate, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Raney®-Nickel, W.R. Grace and Co. Raney® 2800, slurry, in H2O, active catalyst
Nickel, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 1.6mm, bulk density 0.45g/cm3, porosity 95%, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, powder, −100 mesh, 99.5% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, nanopowder, <100 nm avg. part. size, ≥99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, granular, 30-80 mesh, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, granular, ≥99%, 5-20 mesh
Sigma-Aldrich
Raney®-Nickel, W.R. Grace and Co. Raney® 2400, slurry, in H2O, active catalyst
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, foil, thickness 0.125 mm, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, powder, <150 μm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron(III) sulfate hydrate, suitable for plant cell culture, BioReagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, rod, diam. 6.35 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Nickel, sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis
Cadmium, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.99%
Nickel, mesh, 100x250mm, nominal aperture 0.73mm, wire diameter 0.25mm, 26x26 wires/inch, open area 55%, plain weave mesh, 99%
Nickel, rod, 100mm, diameter 3.3mm, 99.99+%
Nickel, rod, 100mm, diameter 16mm, 99.99+%
Nickel, wire reel, 10m, diameter 0.01mm, as drawn, 99.98%
Cadmium, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Nickel, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.01mm, 99.95%
Nickel, wire reel, 250m, diameter 0.25mm, annealed, 99%
Nickel, wire reel, 1m, diameter 1.0mm, hard, 99.98%
Nickel, wire reel, 20m, diameter 0.125mm, hard, 99.98%
Nickel, rod, 100mm, diameter 3.0mm, 99%