The sodium iodide symporter, called also the NIS protein is responsible for iodine trapping to the cell what is significant for the thyroid function. Identified and described for the first time in 1996 NIS protein is the matter of interest of investigators concerning the thyroid physiology and pathology as well as others organs which concentrate the iodine. Existing studies on the sodium iodide symporter include among others: indicating NIS protein expression in the thyroid diseases and extrathyroidal tissues, studying of the NIS antygenicity in the autoimmune diseases of thyroid, finding the molecular aspects of the difference in the NIS protein activity. The sodium iodide symporter is a base of radioiodine therapy of, as for now, thyroid diseases only. Showing NIS protein expression in other cancerous tissues provide a new therapeutic strategy for a variety of human cancers. Additionally, latest explorations indicate at an innovative destination of the studies concerning the sodium iodide symporter that is the gene therapy with the use of gene NIS transfer.