Does speciation matter for tungsten ecotoxicology?

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety (2010-09-16)
Nikolay Strigul
ABSTRACT

Tungsten is a widely used transition metal that has not been thoroughly investigated with regards to its ecotoxicological effects. Tungsten anions polymerize in environmental systems as well as under physiological conditions in living organisms. These polymerization/condensation reactions result in the development of several types of stable polyoxoanions. Certain chemical properties (in particular redox and acidic properties) differentiate these polyanions from monotungstates. However, our current state of knowledge on tungsten toxicology, biological and environmental effects is based entirely on experiments where monotungstates were used and assumed by the authors to be the form of tungsten that was present and that produced the observed effect. Recent discoveries indicate that tungsten speciation may be important to ecotoxicology. New results obtained by different research groups demonstrate that polytungstates develop and persist in environmental systems, and that polyoxotungstates are much more toxic than monotungstates. This paper reviews the available toxicological information from the standpoint of tungsten speciation and identifies knowledge gaps and pertinent future research directions.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, powder, 10 μm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, powder, 12 μm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, foil, thickness 0.05 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, foil, thickness 0.127 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Tungsten, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Tungsten, wire reel, 5m, diameter 0.005mm, gold plated, 99.95%
Tungsten, wire reel, 25m, diameter 0.05mm, clean, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, wire, straight, 300mm, diameter 0.10mm, 99.9+%
Tungsten, wire reel, 5m, diameter 0.125mm, clean, 99.95%
Tungsten, wire reel, 20m, diameter 1.0mm, clean, 99.95%
Tungsten, wire reel, 25m, diameter 0.1mm, clean, 99.95%
Tungsten, rod, 100mm, diameter 1.6mm, centerless ground, 99.95%
Tungsten, wire reel, 5m, diameter 0.25mm, clean, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.2mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.3mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 2.0mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Tungsten, foil, 200x200mm, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95%