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Crystalline calcium carbonate and hydrogels as microenvironment for stem cells.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition) (2011-01-05)
Liliana Astachov, Zvi Nevo, Moran Aviv, Razi Vago
ABSTRACT

Stem cell development and fate decisions are dictated by the microenvironment in which the stem cell is embedded. Among the advanced goals of tissue engineering is the creation of a microenvironment that will support the maintenance and differentiation of the stem cell--based on embryonic and adult stem cells as potent, cellular sources--for a variety of clinical applications. This review discusses some of the approaches used to create regulatory and instructive microenvironments for the directed differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using three-dimensional crystalline calcium carbonate biomaterials of marine origin combined with a hydrated gel based on hyaluronan.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

USP
Calcium Carbonate (AS), United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Calcium carbonate, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, BioUltra, precipitated, ≥99.0% (KT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, chelometric standard, 99.95-100.05% dry basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E170, precipitated, 98.5-100.5% (based on anhydrous substance)
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ReagentPlus®
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, Vetec, reagent grade, 99%
Supelco
Calcium carbonate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, powder, ≤50 μm particle size, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, ≥99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium carbonate, 99.999% trace metals basis