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Recent developments and perspectives in palladium-catalyzed cyanation of aryl halides: synthesis of benzonitriles.

Chemical Society reviews (2011-04-30)
Pazhamalai Anbarasan, Thomas Schareina, Matthias Beller
ABSTRACT

The palladium-catalyzed cyanation of Ar-X (X = I, Br, Cl, OTf, and H) allows for an efficient access towards benzonitriles. After its discovery in 1973 and following significant improvements in recent decades, this methodology has become nowadays the most popular for preparation of substituted aromatic nitriles. In this critical review, we summarize the important developments in this area from 2000 until 2010 (151 references).

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, powder, <1 μm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, powder, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium black, surface area 40-60 m2/g, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, granular, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, sponge, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Palladium, foil, thickness 0.05 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Palladium, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.03mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.047mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.075mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.03mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.047mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.075mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.004mm, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.005mm, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.006mm, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.008mm, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.02mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.03mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Palladium, foil, not light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.02mm, as rolled, 99.95%