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Mechanical resistance of zirconium implant abutments: a review of the literature.

Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal (2011-12-07)
R Velázquez-Cayón, C Vaquero-Aguilar, D Torres-Lagares, M Jiménez-Melendo, J-L Gutiérrez-Pérez
ABSTRACT

The increase of aesthetic demands, together with the successful outcome of current implants, has renewed interest in the search for new materials with enough mechanical properties and better aesthetic qualities than the materials customarily used in implanto-prosthetic rehabilitation. Among these materials, zirconium has been used in different types of implants, including prosthetic abutments. The aim of the present review is to analyse current scientific evidence supporting the use of this material for the above mentioned purposes. We carried out the review of the literature published in the last ten years (2000 through 2010) of in vitro trials of dynamic and static loading of zirconium abutments found in the databases of Medline and Cochrane using the key words zirconium abutment, fracture resistance, fracture strength, cyclic loading. Although we have found a wide variability of values among the different studies, abutments show favourable clinical behaviour for the rehabilitation of single implants in the anterior area. Such variability may be explained by the difficulty to simulate daily mastication under in vitro conditions. The clinical evidence, as found in our study, does not recommend the use of implanto-prosthetic zirconium abutments in the molar area.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Zirconium, powder, −100 mesh
Sigma-Aldrich
Zirconium, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zirconium, sponge, ≥99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zirconium, rod, diam. 6.35 mm, ≥99% trace metals basis
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 50mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.006mm, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 1.5mm, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 12.7mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 2.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 3.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 5.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 6.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 1000mm, diameter 9.5mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 1.5mm, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 12.7mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 19.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 2.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 3.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 5.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 6.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 100mm, diameter 9.5mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 1.5mm, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 12.7mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 19.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 2.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 3.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 5.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 6.0mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 200mm, diameter 9.5mm, centerless ground, 99.2%
Zirconium, rod, 500mm, diameter 1.5mm, 99.2%

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