Cell biology of molybdenum in plants and humans.

Biochimica et biophysica acta (2012-03-01)
Ralf R Mendel, Tobias Kruse
ABSTRACT

The transition element molybdenum (Mo) needs to be complexed by a special cofactor in order to gain catalytic activity. With the exception of bacterial Mo-nitrogenase, where Mo is a constituent of the FeMo-cofactor, Mo is bound to a pterin, thus forming the molybdenum cofactor Moco, which in different variants is the active compound at the catalytic site of all other Mo-containing enzymes. In eukaryotes, the most prominent Mo-enzymes are nitrate reductase, sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, and the mitochondrial amidoxime reductase. The biosynthesis of Moco involves the complex interaction of six proteins and is a process of four steps, which also requires iron, ATP and copper. After its synthesis, Moco is distributed to the apoproteins of Mo-enzymes by Moco-carrier/binding proteins. A deficiency in the biosynthesis of Moco has lethal consequences for the respective organisms. In humans, Moco deficiency is a severe inherited inborn error in metabolism resulting in severe neurodegeneration in newborns and causing early childhood death. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, powder, <150 μm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, powder, 1-5 μm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, powder, <150 μm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, foil, thickness 0.025 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, nanopowder, <100 nm particle size (TEM), 99.8% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, powder, 10 μm, ≥99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Molybdenum, foil, thickness 1.0 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Molybdenum, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.75mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, rod, 100mm, diameter 15.0mm, centerless ground, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.20mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.005mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.006mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.007mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.008mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.009mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.015mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.015mm, as rolled, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.01mm, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.01mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.020mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.025mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.03mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.05mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.075mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99.9%
Molybdenum, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.15mm, annealed, 99.9%