In this review we pose the following seven questions related to ammonia and fish that represent gaps in our knowledge. 1. How is ammonia excretion linked to sodium uptake in freshwater fish? 2. How much does branchial ammonia excretion in seawater teleosts depend on Rhesus (Rh) glycoprotein-mediated NH(3) diffusion? 3. How do fish maintain ammonia excretion rates if branchial surface area is reduced or compromised? 4. Why does high environmental ammonia change the transepithelial potential across the gills? 5. Does high environmental ammonia increase gill surface area in ammonia tolerant fish but decrease gill surface area in ammonia intolerant fish? 6. How does ammonia contribute to ventilatory control? 7. What do Rh proteins do when they are not transporting ammonia? Mini reviews on each topic, which are able to present only partial answers to each question at present, are followed by further questions and/or suggestions for research approaches targeted to uncover answers.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.