Merck

[Molecular bases of platinum-resistance in testicular cancer].

Archivos espanoles de urologia (2013-06-26)
Josep Ramon Germà-Lluch, Josep Maria Piulats
ABSTRACT

Cisplatin has been the cornerstone of germ cell testicular tumors therapy since its introduction more tan 30 years ago, and a basic part of the schemes given to multiple ovarian, lung, head and neck, and bladder tumors among others. Some tumors present primary resistance to this drug, others will develop it despite good initial response. In the case of testicular germ cell tumors most of them are very sensitive to this drug but up to 20% of patients with metastatic disease will present resistance, most of them secondary after a very good initial response. Cisplatin acts by binding to DNA to activate genetic damage recognition mechanisms and apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Resistance mechanisms to cisplatin have been classified in those that happen (1) before its binding to DNA and (2) once it binds to DNA. Most advances in their discovery have used other neoplasias as models, mainly ovarian and lung tumors. In this review we will describe the biological mechanisms behind resistance to cisplatin from the global perspective but trying to focus in testicular germ cell tumors.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.076 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum black, fuel cell grade, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum black, low bulk density, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 2.0 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.127 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.127 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, gauze, 100 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, shot, ≤3 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Platinum, foil, 15x15mm, thickness 0.2mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Platinum, wire reel, 0.05m, diameter 1.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
Platinum, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Platinum, foil, 0.05m coil, thickness 0.029mm, coil width .34mm, annealed, 99.99%
Platinum, insulated wire, 5m, conductor diameter 0.05mm, insulation thickness 0.009mm, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) insulation, 99.99%
Platinum, tube, 100mm, outside diameter 3.0mm, inside diameter 2.8mm, wall thickness 0.1mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Platinum, microfoil, disks, 10mm, thinness 0.25μm, specific density 300μg/cm2, permanent mylar 3.5μm support, 99.99%
Platinum, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Platinum, microfoil, disks, 25mm, thinness 0.1μm, specific density 120μg/cm2, permanent mylar 3.5μm support, 99.99%
Platinum, rod, 10mm, diameter 4.0mm, 99.95%
Platinum, rod, 50mm, diameter 1.25mm, 99.95%
Platinum, tube, 1000mm, outside diameter 0.4mm, inside diameter 0.1mm, wall thickness 0.15mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Platinum, tube, 200mm, outside diameter 1.0mm, inside diameter 0.8mm, wall thickness 0.1mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Platinum, insulated wire, 2m, conductor diameter 0.05mm, insulation thickness 0.0075mm, polyester insulation, 99.99%
Platinum, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Platinum, tube, 50mm, outside diameter 1.0mm, inside diameter 0.8mm, wall thickness 0.1mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Platinum, foil, 0.1m coil, thickness 0.15mm, coil width .9mm, as rolled, 99.99%
Platinum, tube, 200mm, outside diameter 0.95mm, inside diameter 0.60mm, wall thickness 0.175mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Platinum, foil, 30x30mm, thickness 0.2mm, as rolled, 99.95%