Understanding platinum-induced ototoxicity.

Trends in pharmacological sciences (2013-06-19)
Thorsten Langer, Antoinette am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Susanne Radtke, Johannes Meitert, Oliver Zolk
ABSTRACT

Childhood cancer survival rates are now nearly 80% in more developed European countries because of improved therapies and better supportive care. Platinum chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin and carboplatin, are the cornerstone of many effective therapeutic protocols for childhood cancer. However, the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin and carboplatin comes at the cost of ototoxicity, which affects at least 60% of pediatric patients. Although ototoxicity is not life threatening, it can have debilitating effects on patients' quality of life. Recently, many initiatives have been launched with the ultimate goal of reducing cisplatin and high-dose carboplatin ototoxicity without compromising antitumor efficacy. This review addresses the incidence of platinum ototoxicity and its clinical presentation, time course, and early diagnostic evaluation. Genetic and non-genetic risk factors for platinum-associated ototoxicity, and their predictive value, are discussed. Recent developments in the prevention of platinum ototoxicity are also summarized.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, gauze, 100 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum black, black, powder, ≤20 μm, ≥99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, gauze, 52 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, nanopowder, <50 nm particle size (TEM)
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, powder, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum black, fuel cell grade, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.076 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.05 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, thermocouple grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, powder, ≤10 μm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 2.0 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
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Platinum, nanopowder, 200 nm particle size (SEM), 99.9% (metals basis)
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.10 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.125-0.135 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 1.2 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, foil, thickness 0.05 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.127 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum black, low bulk density, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.127 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Platinum, wire, diam. 0.20 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis