Merck

Ancestral genetic complexity of arachidonic acid metabolism in Metazoa.

Biochimica et biophysica acta (2014-05-08)
Dongjuan Yuan, Qiuqiong Zou, Ting Yu, Cuikai Song, Shengfeng Huang, Shangwu Chen, Zhenghua Ren, Anlong Xu
ABSTRACT

Eicosanoids play an important role in inducing complex and crucial physiological processes in animals. Eicosanoid biosynthesis in animals is widely reported; however, eicosanoid production in invertebrate tissue is remarkably different to vertebrates and in certain respects remains elusive. We, for the first time, compared the orthologs involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in 14 species of invertebrates and 3 species of vertebrates. Based on parsimony, a complex AA-metabolic system may have existed in the common ancestor of the Metazoa, and then expanded and diversified through invertebrate lineages. A primary vertebrate-like AA-metabolic system via cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways was further identified in the basal chordate, amphioxus. The expression profiling of AA-metabolic enzymes and lipidomic analysis of eicosanoid production in the tissues of amphioxus supported our supposition. Thus, we proposed that the ancestral complexity of AA-metabolic network diversified with the different lineages of invertebrates, adapting with the diversity of body plans and ecological opportunity, and arriving at the vertebrate-like pattern in the basal chordate, amphioxus.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrazolium Blue Chloride, used in colorimetric determination of reducing compounds
Sigma-Aldrich
Arachidonic acid, from non-animal source, ≥98.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Arachidonic acid sodium salt, from Porcine liver, ≥99% (capillary GC), waxy solid
Sigma-Aldrich
Arachidonic acid, >95.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrazolium Blue Chloride, indicator for germination, suitable for microbiology, ≥90% (T)