The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) family of receptor tyrosine kinases regulates a multitude of physiological and pathological processes. EphA1 is the first member of Eph superfamily and is involved in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of EphA1 in prostate cancers cell lines and the tissues, then explore the correlation with the clinicopathologic parameters. The EphA1 transcript expression in prostate cancer cell lines was detected by Quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of EphA1 protein in 138 prostate cancer tissue samples and 21 benign prostate hyperplasia samples were checked by using immunohistochemical staining. EphA1 mRNA was high expressed in LNCap, moderately expressed in 22RV1 and Du145, and lost in PC3. Loss of expression of EphA1 transcript was related to hypermethylation of CpG island around the translation start site. EphA1 protein was differentially expressed in prostate cancers and hyperplasia. Increased expression of EphA1 protein was more frequently detected in prostate cancers than in hyperplasia (P = 0.02), and more often detected in prostate cancer with high Gleason score (P < 0.001). Our data indicate that EphA1 receptor may have roles in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer, and can be a potentially useful target for prognostic and therapeutic application.