• Home
  • Search Results
  • Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A (2014-11-27)
Anna Z Pollack, Sunni L Mumford, Pauline Mendola, Neil J Perkins, Yaron Rotman, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F Schisterman
ABSTRACT

Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels, but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women apparently has not been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/L, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Each twofold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each twofold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A twofold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Bilirubin, ≥98% (EmM/453 = 60), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Creatinine, anhydrous, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from bovine intestinal mucosa, lyophilized powder, ≥10 DEA units/mg solid
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from bovine intestinal mucosa, BioUltra, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, ≥6,000 DEA units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, powder, −100 mesh, 99.5% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from bovine intestinal mucosa, buffered aqueous solution, ≥2,000 DEA units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from bovine intestinal mucosa, ≥2,000 DEA units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Bilirubin, purum, ≥95.0% (UV)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from Escherichia coli, ammonium sulfate suspension, 30-90 units/mg protein (modified Warburg-Christian, in glycine buffer)
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, granular, 30-80 mesh, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Cadmium, granular, ≥99%, 5-20 mesh
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from Escherichia coli, lyophilized powder, 30-60 units/mg protein (in glycine buffer)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from bovine intestinal mucosa, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, ≥5,500 DEA units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from bovine intestinal mucosa, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, ≥4,000 DEA units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, powder, −100 mesh, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline shrimp, ≥1,000 DEA units/mL, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, recombinant, expressed in proprietary host
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, powder, −325 mesh, ≥99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline bovine, recombinant, expressed in Pichia pastoris, ≥4000 units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from calf intestinal mucosa, suitable for enzyme immunoassay, solution (clear, colorless), ~2500 U/mg protein (~10 mg/ml)
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, shot, <2 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from Escherichia coli, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, 20-50 units/mg protein (in glycine buffer)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphatase, Alkaline from porcine kidney, lyophilized powder, ≥100 DEA units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, shot, 1-3 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Cadmium, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.99%
Lead, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, rod, 200mm, diameter 6.35mm, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%