Merck
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Proteomic changes in brain tissues of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after chronic exposure to two antifouling compounds: butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT).

Proteomic changes in brain tissues of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after chronic exposure to two antifouling compounds: butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT).

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2014-12-03)
Lianguo Chen, Huoming Zhang, Jin Sun, Yue-Him Wong, Zhuang Han, Doris W T Au, Vladimir B Bajic, Pei-Yuan Qian
ABSTRACT

SeaNine 211 with active ingredient of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) has been used as a "green" antifouling agent worldwide but has raised serious biosafety concerns in coastal environments. DCOIT has the potential to disrupt the neurotransmission in nervous system, but the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study, we used TMT six-plex labeling coupled with two-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the protein expression profiles in brain tissues of the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after a 28-day exposure to environmentally-realistic concentration of DCOIT at 2.55 μg/L (0.009 μM) or butenolide, one promising antifouling compound, at 2.31 μg/L (0.012 μM). DCOIT and butenolide induced differential expression of 26 and 18 proteins in male brains and of 27 and 23 proteins in female brains, respectively. Distinct mechanisms of toxicity were initiated by DCOIT and butenolide in males, whereas the protein expression profiles were largely similar in females treated by these two compounds. In males, DCOIT exposure mainly led to disruption of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, while butenolide affected proteins related to the cytoskeletal disorganization that is considered as a general response to toxicant stress. Furthermore, a sex-dependent protein expression profile was also noted between male and female fish, as evident by the inverse changes in the expressions of common proteins (5 proteins for butenolide- and 2 proteins for DCOIT-exposed fish). Overall, this study provided insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of DCOIT and butenolide. The extremely low concentrations used in this study highlighted the ecological relevance, arguing for thorough assessments of their ecological risks before the commercialization of any new antifouling compound.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Residual Solvent - Acetonitrile, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.05 % (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.1 % (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, suitable for HPLC
Millipore
Acetonitrile solution, suitable for HPLC, acetonitrile:water 5:95% (v/v), 10 mM Ammoniumbicarbonate, pH 10,0
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, Hybri-Max, sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for hybridoma, ≥99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
Supelco
Acetonitrile, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.5% (GC)
Supelco
Dimethyl sulfoxide, analytical standard
Supelco
Trifluoroacetic acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, tested according to Ph. Eur., anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, BioUltra, for molecular biology, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
8-Octanoyloxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPCE)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, sterile-filtered, BioPerformance Certified, meets EP, USP testing specifications, suitable for hybridoma
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, ReagentPlus®
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, for DNA synthesis
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, electronic grade, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, suitable for HPLC-GC, ≥99.8% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, buffer substance, anhydrous, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.5-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., NF, E340, anhydrous, 98-100.5% (calc. to the dried substance)
Sigma-Aldrich
Trifluoroacetic acid, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Dimethyl sulfoxide, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, suitable for DNA synthesis, ≥99.9% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, biotech. grade, ≥99.93%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, puriss. p.a., dried, ≤0.02% water
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.9% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, ReagentPlus®, 99%