To report the use of the dye brilliant blue G (BBG) for staining of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) during macular hole (MH) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. This study was designed as an interventional, noncomparative, prospective, clinical case series. Twenty eyes from 20 consecutive patients with MH or ERM underwent BBG-assisted ILM and ERM removal. In MH cases, a posterior vitreous detachment was created, followed by the injection of 0.25 mg/mL BBG solution into the vitreous cavity and immediate washout of the BBG. This technique improved visualization of the ILM, enabling peeling and surgery to be performed successfully. However, in ERM cases, staining of the ERM could not be confirmed at this concentration. Finally, the ILM including the ERM was removed in all cases. Preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations were performed. Postoperatively, 17 patients (85%) had visual acuity improved by at least 2 Snellen lines. No adverse effects were observed postoperatively during the observation period (mean follow-up +/- SD, 7.3 +/- 1.0 months). BBG selectively stains the ILM. This technique can facilitate the management of MH and ERM surgery without any adverse effects, as was shown in this short-term study.