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Anthocyanins suppress the secretion of proinflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, and restore ion pump activities in demyelination.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry (2015-01-31)
Fabiano B Carvalho, Jessié M Gutierres, Crystiani Bohnert, Adriana M Zago, Fátima H Abdalla, Juliano M Vieira, Heloisa E Palma, Sara M Oliveira, Roselia M Spanevello, Marta M Duarte, Sonia T A Lopes, Graciane Aiello, Marta G Amaral, Ney Luis Pippi, Cinthia M Andrade
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of anthocyanins (ANT) on oxidative and inflammatory parameters, as well as ion pump activities, in the pons of rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide (EB). Rats were divided in six groups: control, ANT 30 mg/kg, ANT 100 mg/kg, EB (0.1%), EB plus ANT 30 mg/kg and EB plus ANT 100 mg/kg. The EB cistern pons injection occurred on the first day. On day 7, there was a peak in the demyelination. During the 7 days, the animals were treated once per day with vehicle or ANT. It was observed that demyelination reduced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities and increased 4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and NO2plus NO3 levels. In addition, a depletion of glutathione reduced level/nonprotein thiol content and a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity were also seen. The dose of 100 mg/kg showed a better dose-response to the protective effects. The demyelination did not affect the neuronal viability but did increase the inflammatory infiltrate (myeloperoxidase activity) followed by an elevation in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ levels. ANT promoted a reduction in cellular infiltration and proinflammatory mediators. Furthermore, ANT restored the levels of IL-10. Luxol fast blue staining confirmed the loss of myelin in the EB group and the protective effect of ANT 100 mg/kg. In conclusion, this study was the first to show that ANT are able to restore ion pump activities and protect cellular components against the inflammatory and oxidative damages induced by demyelination.

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