Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a recessively inherited rare disorder characterized by a combination of neuropsychiatric and bone symptoms which, while being unique to this disease, do not provide a rationale for the unambiguous identification of patients. These individuals, in fact, are likely to go unrecognized either because they are considered to be affected by other kinds of dementia or by fibrous dysplasia of bone. Given that dementia in NHD has much in common with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, it cannot be expected to achieve the differential diagnosis of this disease without performing a genetic analysis. Under this scenario, the availability of protein biomarkers would indeed provide a novel context to facilitate interpretation of symptoms and to make the precise identification of this disease possible. The work here reported was designed to generate, for the first time, protein profiles of lymphoblastoid cells from NHD patients. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) have been applied to all components of an Italian family (seven subjects) and to five healthy subjects included as controls. Comparative analyses revealed differences in the expression profile of 21 proteins involved in glucose metabolism and information pathways as well as in stress responses.