Here, we report reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets coated with an anti-angiogenic anticancer taurocholate derivative of low-molecular-weight heparin (LHT7) as a tumor-targeting nanodelivery platform for anticancer drugs. Surface coating of LHT7 onto rGO was confirmed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled LHT7, monitored as fluorescence quenching due to associated rGO. Unlike plain rGO, LHT7-coated rGO (LHT-rGO) nanosheets maintained a stable dispersion under physiological conditions for at least 24h. Moreover, LHT-rGO provided greater loading capacity for doxorubicin (Dox) compared with uncoated rGO nanosheets. Following intravenous administration into KB tumor-bearing mice, in vivo tumor accumulation of LHT-rGO/Dox was 7-fold higher than that of rGO/Dox 24h post dosing. In tumor tissues, LHT-rGO/Dox was shown to localize not to the tumor vasculature, but rather to tumor cells. Intravenously administered LHT-rGO/Dox showed the greatest anti-tumor effect in KB-bearing mice, reducing tumor volume by 92.5%±3.1% compared to the untreated group 25days after tumor inoculation. TUNEL assays revealed that the population of apoptotic cells was highest in the group treated with LHT-rGO/Dox. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LHT-rGO nanosheets confer improved dispersion stability, tumor distribution and in vivo antitumor effects, and may be further developed as a potential active nanoplatform of various anticancer drugs.