Merck

Phosphatidylethanolamine positively regulates autophagy and longevity.

Cell death and differentiation (2015-01-13)
P Rockenfeller, M Koska, F Pietrocola, N Minois, O Knittelfelder, V Sica, J Franz, D Carmona-Gutierrez, G Kroemer, F Madeo
ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a cellular recycling program that retards ageing by efficiently eliminating damaged and potentially harmful organelles and intracellular protein aggregates. Here, we show that the abundance of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) positively regulates autophagy. Reduction of intracellular PE levels by knocking out either of the two yeast phosphatidylserine decarboxylases (PSD) accelerated chronological ageing-associated production of reactive oxygen species and death. Conversely, the artificial increase of intracellular PE levels, by provision of its precursor ethanolamine or by overexpression of the PE-generating enzyme Psd1, significantly increased autophagic flux, both in yeast and in mammalian cell culture. Importantly administration of ethanolamine was sufficient to extend the lifespan of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), mammalian cells (U2OS, H4) and flies (Drosophila melanogaster). We thus postulate that the availability of PE may constitute a bottleneck for functional autophagy and that organismal life or healthspan could be positively influenced by the consumption of ethanolamine-rich food.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Rapamycin, Ready Made Solution, 2.5 mg/mL in DMSO (2.74 mM), from Streptomyces hygroscopicus
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine, purified by redistillation, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 30 % (w/w), for ultratrace analysis
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine, liquid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Supelco
Ethanolamine, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.0% (GC/NT)
Supelco
Hydrogen peroxide solution, ≥30%, for trace analysis
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 34.5-36.5%
Supelco
Aucubin, analytical standard
Millipore
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 3%, suitable for microbiology
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 30 % (w/w) in H2O, contains stabilizer
Avanti
Egg Trans PE, L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine, transphosphatidylated (Egg, Chicken), powder
Avanti
Egg Trans PE, L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine, transphosphatidylated (Egg, Chicken), chloroform
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains inhibitor, 30 wt. % in H2O, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, purum p.a., ≥35% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains inhibitor, 30 wt. % in H2O, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains ~200 ppm acetanilide as stabilizer, 3 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains inhibitor, 35 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 50 wt. % in H2O, stabilized
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen Peroxide Solution, 30% (w/w), puriss. p.a., reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur.
SAFC
Ethanolamine
Aucubin, primary reference standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanolamine hydrochloride, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
N-[Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide, contains ≤7% KCl, 93%
Supelco
Rapamycin, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Trolamine impurity A, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard