During wheat digestion, gluten-derived proteolytic resistant peptides are generated, some of them involved in celiac disease. In vitro digestion models able to mimic the peptides generated in the human gastrointestinal tract are extremely useful to assess the pathogenicity of wheat-derived products. In this paper, samples belonging to three different durum wheat varieties were taken at six different steps of the pasta production chain and two different digestion models present in the literature were assessed on the different samples: a more complex one using artificial fluids simulating the exact composition of digestive juices, and a simplified method based on a peptic-tryptic/chymotryptic treatment of wheat ethanolic extract. An extensive characterization of the peptides generated using two in vitro digestion models was performed through LC-MS/MS techniques and the two methods were compared in order to evaluate qualitative and quantitative differences and their possible implications for varietal screening. Strong differences in the type of peptides produced with the two methods were detected, indicating that the simplified method can still be used for a varietal screening but is not representative of the peptides really generated after physiological human digestion. Results indicate a clear necessity of physiologically accurate models for simulating human gastrointestinal digestion of wheat products.