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Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

ACS nano (2014-04-02)
Kwan Wee Tan, David T Moore, Michael Saliba, Hiroaki Sai, Lara A Estroff, Tobias Hanrath, Henry J Snaith, Ulrich Wiesner
ABSTRACT

Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
N,N-Dimethylformamide, anhydrous, 99.8%
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Toluene, anhydrous, 99.8%
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2-Propanol, suitable for HPLC, 99.9%
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Tetrahydrofuran, anhydrous, contains 250 ppm BHT as inhibitor, ≥99.9%
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Tetrahydrofuran, inhibitor-free, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
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2-Propanol, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
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Nitric acid, ACS reagent, 70%
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Chloroform, contains 100-200 ppm amylenes as stabilizer, ≥99.5%
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2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5%
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Titanium(IV) isopropoxide, 97%
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N,N-Dimethylformamide, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
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Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
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N,N-Dimethylformamide, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
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Chloroform, anhydrous, ≥99%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
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1-Butanol, 99.9%
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