This experimental controlled study was performed to evaluate the composition of autologous processed plasma (APP), and the effects of APP intra-articular injection into healthy equine metacarpophalangeal joints. The effects on joints were analysed with a short-phase protocol and a prolonged-phase protocol using saline-injected joints as controls. For the short protocol, horses received one intra-articular APP injection. Synovial fluid samples were collected prior to the injection and 3, 6, 24, 48, and 16 h after treatment. For the prolonged protocol, the joints received three weekly injections of APP, and samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days before APP administration. IL1-ra level was found to be increased in APP compared to plasma. Upon intra-articular administration of APP, transient (up to 24 h) increases in white blood cell (WBC) counts along with elevated protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were observed in the treated joints. Over the 28-day observation period, APP did not elicit changes relative to baseline levels, but WBC counts, PGE2 and chondroitin sulphate concentrations were lower than those found in the control. In conclusion, APP intra-articular injection induced a mild and transitory inflammatory response but no inflammation reaction was observed over a longer period of treatment and observation.