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The detrimental effects of acute hyperglycemia on myocardial glucose uptake.

Life sciences (2014-04-22)
Danzil Joseph, Charlene Kimar, Burger Symington, Robyn Milne, M Faadiel Essop
ABSTRACT

Although acute hyperglycemic (AHG) episodes are linked to lower glucose uptake, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that AHG triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increases non-oxidative glucose pathway (NOGP) activation, i.e. stimulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), polyol pathway (PP), hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), PKC; thereby decreasing cardiac glucose uptake. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to 25 mM glucose for 24h vs. 5.5mM controls ± modulating agents during the last hour of glucose exposure: a) antioxidant #1 for mitochondrial ROS (250 μM 4-OHCA), b) antioxidant #2 for NADPH oxidase-generated ROS (100 μM DPI), c) NOGP inhibitors - 100 μM aminoguanidine (AGE), 5 μM chelerythrine (PKC); 40 μM DON (HBP); and 10 μM zopolrestat (PP). ROS levels (mitochondrial, intracellular) and glucose uptake were evaluated by flow cytometry. AHG elevated ROS, activated NOGPs and blunted glucose uptake. Transketolase activity (pentose phosphate pathway [PPP] marker) did not change. Respective 4-OHCA and DPI treatment blunted ROS production, diminished NOGP activation and normalized glucose uptake. NOGP inhibitory studies identified PKCβII as a key downstream player in lowering insulin-mediated glucose uptake. When we employed an agent (benfotiamine) known to shunt flux away from NOGPs (into PPP), it decreased ROS generation and NOGP activation, and restored glucose uptake under AHG conditions. This study demonstrates that AHG elicits maladaptive events that function in tandem to reduce glucose uptake, and that antioxidant treatment and/or attenuation of NOGP activation (PKC, polyol pathway) may limit the onset of insulin resistance.

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