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Bone marrow stromal cell paracrine factors direct osteo/odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells.

Tissue engineering. Part A (2014-05-13)
Niyaz Al-Sharabi, Ying Xue, Masahito Fujio, Minoru Ueda, Cecilie Gjerde, Kamal Mustafa, Inge Fristad
ABSTRACT

Growth factors play an important role in osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the biological effects of recombinant human growth differentiation factor 5 (rhGDF-5) alone and a cocktail of soluble growth factors (conditioned medium) released from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) on the morphology, proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs. Passage 4 hDPCs were harvested for culture in four different media: (a) DMEM with 10% FBS, (b) odontogenic induction medium (OM), (c) OM plus 500 ng/mL rhGDF-5, and (d) OM plus conditioned medium (CM). Morphological changes at 48 and 120 h were determined by crystal violet staining. The proliferation rates at 3, 24, 48, and 120 h were assayed by MTT. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the mRNA levels of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), collagen type I (Col 1), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Cbfa1/Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), β3 tubulin (TUBB3), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), were determined at 2, 5, and 9 days. Protein expression of dental sialoprotein (DSP), DMP1, OC, and TUBB3 was recorded at 5 days, using western blot and immunocytochemistry. The effect of the different culture media on mineralization was determined by ALP staining at day 5 and Alizarin red S staining at days 7 and 14. In response to the different culture media, the shape of the hDPCs varied from spindled to polygonal and cuboidal. CM inhibited the cellular proliferation rate, while rhGDF-5 had no effect at early time points, but promoted cellular proliferation at 120 h of culture. In the CM group, the mRNA levels of Cbfa1/Runx2, Col 1, ALP, VEGFA, Ang1, and TUBB3 decreased and the levels of GDNF and OC increased. The mRNA levels of DSPP and DMP1 were inconsistent at the time points evaluated. The staining assays also demonstrated that compared with the other groups, the CM group exhibited lower expression of ALP and higher mineralization levels. Protein expression of DSP, DMP1, OC, and TUBB3 was pronounced by the CM-treated cells. It is concluded that under these in vitro conditions, CM released from hBMMSCs have a greater osteo/odontogenic inductive effect on hDPCs than rhGDF-5.

MATERIALS
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