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Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

The Science of the total environment (2014-05-20)
Yu Bin Ho, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Puziah Abdul Latif, Nazamid Saari
ABSTRACT

Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Norfloxacin, analytical standard, ≥98% (TLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Enrofloxacin, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Amoxicillin, 95.0-102.0% anhydrous basis
Supelco
Enrofloxacin, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Enrofloxacin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Norfloxacin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Trimethoprim for system suitability, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Norfloxacin for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Enrofloxacin, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Enrofloxacin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Norfloxacin, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Erythromycin, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Erythromycin, potency: ≥850 μg per mg
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, meets USP testing specifications
Supelco
Erythromycin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Trimethoprim, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Doxycycline hyclate, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Doxycycline hyclate
Sigma-Aldrich
Erythromycin, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethoprim, crystallized, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Supelco
Trimethoprim, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Progesterone, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Erythromycin standard solution, 1 mg/mL in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Erythromycin, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethoprim, ≥98% (HPLC)
USP
Erythromycin, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Doxycycline hyclate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard