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Efficient Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem and Neural Progenitor Cells From Acutely Harvested Dura Mater Obtained During Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery.

World neurosurgery (2015-06-16)
Whitney Ann Cary, Courtney Namiko Hori, Missy Trananh Pham, Catherine Ann Nacey, Jeannine Logan McGee, Mattan Hamou, Robert F Berman, Gerhard Bauer, Jan A Nolta, Ben Waldau
ABSTRACT

The dura mater can be easily biopsied during most cranial neurosurgical operations. We describe a protocol that allows for robust generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and neural progenitors from acutely harvested dura mater. To generate iPSCs and neural progenitor cells from dura mater obtained during ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. Dura was obtained during ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery for normal pressure hydrocephalus from a 60-year-old patient with severe cognitive impairment. Fibroblasts were isolated from the dural matrix and transduced with nonintegrating Sendai virus for iPSC induction. A subset of successfully generated iPSC clones underwent immunocytochemical analysis, teratoma assay, karyotyping, and targeted neural differentiation. Eleven iPSC clones were obtained from the transduction of an estimated 600,000 dural fibroblasts after 3 passages. Three clones underwent immunocytochemical analysis and were shown to express the transcription factors OCT-4, SOX2, and the embryonic cell markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and Nanog. Two clones were tested for pluripotency and formed teratomas at the injection site in immunodeficient mice. Three clones underwent chromosomal analysis and were found to have a normal metaphase spread and karyotype. One clone underwent targeted neural differentiation and formed neural rosettes as well as TuJ1/SOX1-positive neural progenitor cells. IPSCs and neural progenitor cells can be efficiently derived from the dura of patients who need to undergo cranial neurosurgical operations. IPSCs were obtained with a nonintegrating virus and exhibited a normal karyotype, making them candidates for future autotransplantation after targeted differentiation to treat functional deficits.

MATERIALS
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