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  • Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology (2015-06-30)
Izabella Z A Pawluczyk, Maryam G Najafabadi, Jeremy R Brown, Alan Bevington, Peter S Topham
ABSTRACT

Defects in sialylation are known to have serious consequences on podocyte function leading to collapse of the glomerular filtration barrier and the development of proteinuria. However, the cellular processes underlying aberrant sialylation in renal disease are inadequately defined. We have shown in cultured human podocytes that puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) downregulates enzymes involved in sialic acid metabolism and redox homeostasis and these can be rescued by co-treatment with free sialic acid. The aim of the current study was to ascertain whether sialic acid supplementation could improve renal function and attenuate desialylation in an in vivo model of proteinuria (PAN nephrosis) and to delineate the possible mechanisms involved. PAN nephrotic rats were supplemented with free sialic acid, its precursor N-acetyl mannosamine or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Glomeruli, urine, and sera were examined for evidence of kidney injury and therapeutic efficacy. Of the three treatment regimens, sialic acid had the broadest efficacy in attenuating PAN-induced injury. Proteinuria and urinary nephrin loss were reduced. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that podocyte ultrastructure, exhibited less severe foot process effacement. PAN-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated as evidenced by a reduction in glomerular NOX4 expression and a downregulation of urine xanthine oxidase levels. Sialylation dysfunction was improved as indicated by reduced urinary concentrations of free sialic acid, restored electrophoretic mobility of podocalyxin, and improved expression of a sialyltransferase. These data indicate that PAN induces alterations in the expression of enzymes involved in redox control and sialoglycoprotein metabolism, which can be ameliorated by sialic acid supplementation possibly via its properties as both an antioxidant and a substrate for sialylation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Uridine, Vetec, reagent grade, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Uridine, ≥99%
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Uridine, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Uridine, BioUltra, ≥99%
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4′-Hydroxy-3′-methoxyacetophenone, 98%
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Acetovanillone, ≥98%, FG
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Xanthine, BioUltra, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Xanthine, ≥99.5% (HPLC), purified by recrystallization
Sigma-Aldrich
Xanthine, ≥99%