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Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

Talanta (2015-12-24)
Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Behruz Feriduni, Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
ABSTRACT

In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
N,N-Dimethylformamide, anhydrous, 99.8%
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Acetone, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
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Hydrochloric acid, ACS reagent, 37%
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2-Propanol, BioReagent, for molecular biology, ≥99.5%
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Acetonitrile, anhydrous, 99.8%
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2-Propanol, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
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Hydrochloric acid, ACS reagent, 37%
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Sodium hydroxide, reagent grade, ≥98%, pellets (anhydrous)
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Sodium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (AT)
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2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5%
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1,2-Dichloroethane, anhydrous, 99.8%
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