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Cooking, storage, and reheating effect on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in processed meat products.

Lipids in health and disease (2015-08-12)
Muhammad I Khan, Joong-Seok Min, Sang-Ok Lee, Dong Gyun Yim, Kuk-Hwan Seol, Mooha Lee, Cheorun Jo
ABSTRACT

Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Cholesterol, Sigma Grade, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, ≥99.0% (GC), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, technical grade, 90%
Sigma-Aldrich
Linoleic acid, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Butylated hydroxytoluene, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Chlorotrimethylsilane, purified by redistillation, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chlorotrimethylsilane, ≥98.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholesterol, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, suitable for cell culture, BioReagent
Supelco
N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide with trimethylchlorosilane, with 1% trimethylchlorosilane, for GC derivatization, LiChropur
Sigma-Aldrich
Linoleic acid, liquid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, ≥99%
SAFC
Cholesterol, Plant-Derived
Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxycholesterol, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, natural, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholesterol, from sheep wool, ≥92.5% (GC), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Linoleic acid, technical, 58-74% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Chlorotrimethylsilane, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, meets analytical specification of Ph, Eur., 65.0-88.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicic acid, BioReagent, suitable for column chromatography, 100-200 mesh (75 - 150 μm)
Sigma-Aldrich
Chlorotrimethylsilane solution, 1.0 M in THF
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicic acid, suitable for column chromatography, 60-200 mesh
Sigma-Aldrich
5-Cholesten-3β-ol-7-one, ≥90%
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicic acid, BioReagent, suitable for column chromatography, 200-400 mesh (38 - 75 μm)
SAFC
Cholesterol, from sheep wool, Controlled origin, meets USP/NF testing specifications