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Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

Bioresource technology (2015-08-01)
Ezgi Erdogan, Buse Atila, Jan Mumme, M Toufiq Reza, Asli Toptas, Murat Elibol, Jale Yanik
ABSTRACT

In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Lactic acid solution, ACS reagent, ≥85%
Sigma-Aldrich
Lactic acid, 85%, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
Lactic acid, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Lactic acid, natural, ≥85%
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Lactic acid, 85 % (w/w), syrup