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Theranostic etoposide phosphate/indium nanoparticles for cancer therapy and imaging.

Nanoscale (2015-10-23)
Ramishetti Srinivas, Andrew Satterlee, Yuhua Wang, Yuan Zhang, Yongjun Wang, Leaf Huang
ABSTRACT

Etoposide phosphate (EP), a water-soluble anticancer prodrug, is widely used for treatment of many cancers. After administration it is rapidly converted to etoposide, its parent compound, which exhibits anticancer activity. Difficulty in parenteral administration necessitates the development of a suitable nanoparticle delivery system for EP. Here we have used indium both as a carrier to deliver etoposide phosphate to tumor cells and as a SPECT imaging agent through incorporation of (111)In. Etoposide phosphate was successfully encapsulated together with indium in nanoparticles, and exhibited dose dependent cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in cultured H460 cancer cells via G2/M cell cycle arrest. In a mouse xenograft lung cancer model, etoposide phosphate/indium nanoparticles induce tumor cell apoptosis, leading to significant enhancement of tumor growth inhibition compared to the free drug.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
DAPI, for nucleic acid staining
Sigma-Aldrich
Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥97.5% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Propidium iodide, ≥94.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Propidium iodide solution, solution (1.0 mg/ml in water)
Sigma-Aldrich
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, ≥98% (TLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Etoposide, synthetic, 98.0-105.0%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Bicinchoninic acid disodium salt hydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)