Modulation of both mechanical properties and biocompatibilities of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels is very importance for their applications in biomaterials. Pure HA solution was converted into a hydrogel by using butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) as a crosslinking agent. Mechanical properties of the HA hydrogels have been evaluated by adding up different amount of BDDEs. While the mechanical properties of the obtained HA hydrogels were evaluated by measuring their crosslinking degrees, elastic modulus and viscosity, their in vitro biocompatibilities were done by measuring the degrees of anti-inflammatory reactions, cell viabilities and cytotoxicity. The degrees of anti-inflammatory reactions were determined by measuring the amount of nitric oxides (NOs) released from lipopolysaccharide(LPS)(+)-induced macrophages; cell viability was evaluated by observing differences in the behaviors of fibroblasts covered with the HA hydrogels, compared with those covered with the films of Teflon and Latex. Cytotoxicity of the HA hydrogels was also evaluated by measuring the degrees of viability of the cells exposed on the extracts of the HA hydrogels over those of Teflon, Latex and pure HA solutions by the assays of thiazoly blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral reds, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The results showed that employment of BDDEs beyond critical amounts showed lower biocompatibility of the crosslinked HA hydrogels but higher crosslinking degrees and mechanical properties, indicating the importance of controlling the HA concentrations, BDDE amounts and their reaction times for the synthesis of the crosslinked HA hydrogels for their clinical applications as biomaterials.