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  • Electrophysiological and behavioral characterization of bioactive compounds of the Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae and prospects for their use as bednet treatments.

Electrophysiological and behavioral characterization of bioactive compounds of the Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae and prospects for their use as bednet treatments.

Parasites & vectors (2015-06-13)
Emilie Deletre, Fabrice Chandre, Livy Williams, Claire Duménil, Chantal Menut, Thibaud Martin
ABSTRACT

Laboratory and field studies showed that repellent, irritant and toxic actions of common public health insecticides reduce human-vector contact and thereby interrupt disease transmission. One of the more effective strategies to reduce disease risk involves the use of long-lasting treated bednets. However, development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations makes it imperative to find alternatives to these insecticides. Our previous study identified four essential oils as alternatives to pyrethroids: Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The objectives of this study were to identify active compounds of these essential oils, to characterize their biological activity, and to examine their potential as a treatment for bednets. We evaluated the electrophysiological, behavioural (repellency, irritancy) and toxic effects of the major compounds of these oils against Anopheles gambiae strain 'Kisumu'. Aldehydes elicited the strongest responses and monoterpenes the weakest responses in electroantennogram (EAG) trials. However, EAG responses did not correlate consistently with results of behavioral assays. In behavioral and toxicity studies, several of the single compounds did exhibit repellency, irritancy or toxicity in An. gambiae; however, the activity of essential oils did not always correlate with activity expected from the major components. On the contrary, the biological activity of essential oils appeared complex, suggesting interactions between individual compounds and the insect under study. Data also indicated that the three effects appeared independent, suggesting that repellency mechanism(s) may differ from mechanisms of irritancy and toxicity. Based on the bioassays reported here, some of the compounds merit consideration as alternative bednet treatments.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, powder, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99.0%
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Potassium phosphate monobasic, ReagentPlus®
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Thymol, ≥98.5%
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Cinnamaldehyde, natural, ≥95%, FG
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Potassium phosphate monobasic, for molecular biology, ≥98.0%
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trans-Cinnamaldehyde, 99%
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Linalool, 97%
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Geraniol, 98%
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p-Cymene, 99%
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Thymol, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF, 99-101%
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(S)-(−)-Limonene, 96%
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Potassium phosphate monobasic, BioUltra, for molecular biology, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (T)
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(±)-Citronellal, ≥95.0% (GC)
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Linalool, ≥97%, FCC, FG
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β-Citronellol, 95%
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Potassium phosphate monobasic, 99.99% trace metals basis
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Thymol, FCC, FG
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Geraniol, natural, ≥97%, FG
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Geranyl acetate, ≥97%
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Geraniol, ≥97%, FCC, FG
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Cuminaldehyde, 98%
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Citronellol, ≥95%, FCC, FG
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trans-Cinnamaldehyde, ≥99%
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(−)-Linalool, ≥95.0% (sum of enantiomers, GC)
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p-Cymene, ≥97%, FG
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(S)-(−)-Limonene, ≥95%, FG
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trans-Cinnamaldehyde, FCC, FG
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2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde, natural, 98%, FG
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Citronellol, mixture of isomers, natural, ≥95%, FG