Merck
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Effect of Bradykinin Postconditioning on Ischemic and Toxic Brain Damage.

Effect of Bradykinin Postconditioning on Ischemic and Toxic Brain Damage.

Neurochemical research (2015-07-29)
Mária Lalkovičová, Petra Bonová, Jozef Burda, Viera Danielisová
ABSTRACT

Brain damage caused by ischemia or toxic agents leads in selectively vulnerable regions to apoptosis-like delayed neuronal death and can result in irreversible damage. Selectively vulnerable neurons of the CA1 area of hippocampus are particularly sensitive to ischemic damage. We investigated the effects of bradykinin (BR) postconditioning on cerebral ischemic and toxic injury. Transient forebrain ischemia was induced by four-vessel occlusion for 10 min and toxic injury was induced by trimethyltin (TMT, 8 µg/kg i.p.). BR as a postconditioner at a dose of 150 µg/kg was applied intraperitoneally 48 h after ischemia or TMT intoxication. Experimental animals were divided into groups according to the length of survival (short-3 and 7 days, and long-28 days survival) and according to the applied ischemic or toxic injury. Glutamate concentration was lowered in both CA1 and dentate gyrus areas of hippocampus after the application of BR postconditioning in both ischemic and toxic brain damage. The number of degenerated neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region was significantly lower in BR-treated ischemic and toxic groups compared to vehicle group. The behavioral test used in our experiments confirms also the memory improvement in conditioned animals. The rats' ability to form spatial maps and learn was preserved, which is visible from our Barnes maze results. By using the methods of delayed postconditioning is possible to stimulate the endogenous protective mechanisms of the organism and induce the neuroprotective effect. In this study we demonstrated that BR postconditioning, if applied before the onset of irreversible neurodegenerative changes, induced neuroprotection against ischemic or toxic injury.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, 0.02% in DPBS (0.5 mM), sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, purified grade, ≥98.5%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ACS reagent, 99.4-100.6%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Xylene, anhydrous, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloral hydrate, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.5-101%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloral hydrate, crystallized, ≥98.0% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, anhydrous, crystalline, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Vetec, reagent grade, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride solution, 0.075 M, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, AnhydroBeads, −10 mesh, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, AnhydroBeads, −10 mesh, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, for molecular biology, ≥97.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, BioXtra, ≥97 .0%
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~1 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, ≥97.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~1 M in H2O
Supelco
DL-Dithiothreitol solution, 1 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, Vetec, reagent grade, 99%