Neuregulin (NRG)-1-human epidermal receptor (HER)-2 signaling pathway is a key regulator of IL-1β-mediated pulmonary inflammation and epithelial permeability. The inflammasome is a newly discovered molecular platform required for caspase-1 activation and maturation of IL-1β. However, the role of the inflammasome in NRG-1-HER2 signaling-mediated alveolar cell permeability is unknown. The inflammasome was activated or inhibited in THP-1 cells; supernatants from these cells were added to A549 cells and human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEC). The protein expression of NRG-1 and phospho-HER2 (pHER2) were measured by Western blot analysis and epithelial permeability was measured using Lucifer yellow dye. Results reveal that alveolar permeability in A549 cells and HSAEC is increased when treated with supernatants of inflammasome-activated THP-1 cells. Alveolar permeability is significantly suppressed when treated with supernatant of inflammasome-inhibited THP-1 cells. Inflammasome-mediated permeability is decreased when A549 cells and HSAEC are pretreated with IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1βRA). In addition, HER2 kinase inhibitor AG825 or NRG-1 inhibitor TAPI inhibits inflammasome-mediated permeability in A549 cells and HSAEC demonstrating critical roles of IL-1β, NRG-1, and HER2 in inflammasome-mediated alveolar permeability. These findings suggest that inflammasome-induced alveolar cell permeability is mediated by NRG-1/HER2 signaling through IL-1β regulation.