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Charge-switchable gold nanoparticles for enhanced enzymatic thermostability.

Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP (2015-07-30)
Shiv Shankar, Sarvesh K Soni, Hemant K Daima, P R Selvakannan, Jayant M Khire, Suresh K Bhargava, Vipul Bansal
ABSTRACT

This study illustrates a facile strategy for efficient immobilization of enzymes on a metal nanoparticle surface. The strategy proposed here enables the enzymatic activity to be retained while increasing the enzyme thermostability. It is demonstrated that the use of a zwitterionic amino acid tyrosine as a reducing and capping agent to synthesise gold nanoparticles allows efficient immobilization of phytase enzyme through charge-switchable electrostatic interactions. The detailed kinetic and thermodynamic studies reveal that the proposed enzyme immobilization strategy improves the overall quality of phytase by reducing the activation energy required for substrate hydrolysis and broadening the temperature window in which immobilized enzyme is able to operate. The outcomes of this study indicate that the underlying zwitterionic nature of 20 natural amino acids along with significant variability in their isoelectric points and hydropathy indices as well the ability of some of the amino acids to reduce metal ions is likely to offer significant opportunities for tailoring nano-bio interfaces in a rational manner for a range of biological applications.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
L-Tyrosine, reagent grade, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Tyrosine, from non-animal source, meets EP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 99.0-101.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Tyrosine, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hydroxide, anhydrous, ≥99.95% trace metals basis
SAFC
L-Tyrosine
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Tyrosine, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hydroxide on alumina