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The polycystic ovary syndrome-associated gene Yap1 is regulated by gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in hyperandrogenism-induced oligo-ovulation in mouse.

Molecular human reproduction (2017-09-30)
Shu-Yan Ji, Xiao-Man Liu, Bo-Tai Li, Yin-Li Zhang, Hong-Bin Liu, Yu-Chao Zhang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Junping Liu, Heng-Yu Fan
ABSTRACT

What is the physiological function of Yes-associated protein-1 (Yap1), a susceptibility gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs)? Physiologically, steroid sex hormones stimulate follicle growth by activating YAP1; however, the preovulatory inhibition of YAP1 activity in GCs is a prerequisite of LH actions. PCOS is a common gynecologic and endocrine disease with multiple short and long-term consequences. Many PCOS patients suffer anovulation caused by hyperandrogenism, but its etiology remains unclear. To study the effect of acute hyperandrogenism on ovulation, we injected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG)-primed (44 h) pubertal mice with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the major biologically active form of androgen, in a superovulation assay. We investigated if YAP1 is regulated by testosterone and if it is potentially involved in follicle development and ovulation. Cultured primary GCs were subjected to Yap1 depletion by RNA interference and Yap1 overexpression by adenoviral infections. Female mice at postnatal day (PD)-21~23 were analyzed to avoid the complexity of ovarian functions associated with estrous cycles and endogenous surges of gonadotropins. Immature mice were injected intraperitoneally with five IU PMSG to stimulate preovulatory follicle development followed 44 h later with five IU hCG to stimulate ovulation. For DHT treatments, female mice at PD23 were injected intraperitoneally with five IU PMSG followed 44 h later with five IU hCG alone (as control) or five IU hCG plus 100 μg DHT, which was dissolved in 0.1 ml DMSO. Methods of gene expression detection used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blotting and quantitative PCR. More than three biological and technical replicates were included in each experiments. we provide novel evidence in a mouse model that YAP1 is required for proliferation of ovarian GCs, but is down-regulated by LH through the extracellular-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) cascade. Acute hyperandrogenism blocks LH actions and causes oligo-ovulation by activating YAP1. N/A. Results shown were obtained only in mouse, and need to be further confirmed in human samples. These findings not only elucidated the role of YAP1 in maintaining normal ovarian functions, but also link the YAP1 deregulation to the pathogenesis of PCOS. This study is funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1000600 and 2017YFSF1001500) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (31528016, 31371449 and 31671558). The authors have no competing interests.

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Sigma-Aldrich
M2 medium, With HEPES, without penicillin and streptomycin, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for mouse embryo cell culture