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Exploration of Antifungal and Immunomodulatory Potentials of a Furanone Derivative to Rescue Disseminated Cryptococosis in Mice.

Scientific reports (2017-11-15)
Sudarshan Singh Rathore, Muthukrishnan Isravel, Sridharan Vellaisamy, David Raj Chellappan, Lalitha Cheepurupalli, Thiagarajan Raman, Jayapradha Ramakrishnan
ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans infection is quite complex with both host-pathogen interaction and host immune profile determining disease progress and therapeutic outcome. Hence in the present study, the potential utility of (E)-5-benzylidenedihydrofuran-2(3 H)-one (compound-6) was explored as an effective anticryptococcal compound with immunomodulatory potential. The efficacy of compound-6 in pulmonary cryptococosis model using H99 strain was investigated. The effective dose was found to provide 100% survival, with a significant reduction of yeast burden in lungs and brain. The biodistribution analysis provided evidence for the presence of higher concentration of compound-6 in major organs including lungs and brain. In addition, compound-6 treated mice had significantly higher expression of IL-6, IL-4 and IFN-γ in lung and brain. Similarly, elevated expression of TNF-α, IL-β1 and IL-12 were observed in lungs, suggesting the protective host response against C. neoformans. The reduction and clearance of fungal load in systemic organs and mouse survival are notable results to confirm the ability of compound-6 to treat cryptococcosis. In conclusion, the low molecular weight (174 Da), lipophilicity, its ability to cross blood brain barrier, and facilitating modulation of cytokine expression are the added advantages of compound-6 to combat against disseminated cryptococosis.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10, purified by phenol extraction